The HotSpot engineers are constantly working on improving performance. I noticed two interesting commits recently:

Vladimir Kozlov improved Compressed Oops so that it doesn’t need to do encoding/decoding if the heap is smaller than 4GB and to reduce branches/checks if the heap is between 4GB and 32GB. The end result is that 64-bit now surpasses 32-bit performance in more situations. See my entry about Compressed Oops if you don’t know what I’m talking about. :)

Christian Thalinger added support for load unsigned in the -server JIT. This means that things like bytearray[i] & 0xFF and intarray[i] & 0xFFFFFFFF (necessary since JVM bytecode doesn’t support unsigned types) can be transformed into load unsigned operations to avoid the performance penalty. This can make a decent difference in some cases (e.g. charset operations).